According to the current IOC rules, a winter sport can be officially recognized as an Olympic sport if it is cultivated in at least 50 countries on three continents, and competitions in this kind are held among both men and women.
Included (was) in the official program of the Winter Olympic Games:
Bobsled. In the program of all the Games, except for 1960. At first, only competitions for men’s fours were held, in 1932 they added the men’s, and in 2002 the women’s two.
Military patrol races. Later they were included in the program of several Winter Olympic Games as a demonstration discipline – until in 1960 they were replaced by biathlon.
Curling. He was included in the program of the very first Winter Olympic Games, then several times was presented as a demonstration discipline, and since 1998 again as an official one. Competitions are held in women’s and men’s categories.
Ski race. Were in the program of all the Olympic Games: first, only for men, and then for women. Athletes compete in 12 types (men and women) of the program: individual race (at different distances), sprint, mass start, relay and pursuit.
Nordic combination: cross-country skiing + ski jumping. Since 1988, in addition to individual competitions, team competitions have also been held. And in 2002, a new type of ski nordic event – sprint – was included in the program.
Ski jumping. In 1964, jumps from a giant springboard were added to the “regular” jumps, and in 1988 – team competitions. Only men participate.
Ice-skating race. At first it was an exclusively male discipline. In 1932, women held demonstrations, and since 1960, speed skaters have been participating in official competitions. In the modern Olympic program, running 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m, 3000 m (women only), 5000 and 10 000 (husband only), as well as the team pursuit race.
Figure skating. The first of the winter sports to be included in the Olympic program was in 1908. In 1976, ice dancing was added to single (husband and wife) and pair skating.
Hockey. He debuted as an Olympic discipline in 1920 and was part of the program of all OWGs. Since 1998, in addition to the men’s tournament, there has also been a women’s tournament.
Skeleton. He was part of the program of the Winter Olympic Games in St. Moritz in 1928 and 1948. It was here that this type of luge was born (the difference is that in the skeleton the athlete lies on the sleigh, not on his back, but prone). Re-included in the program of the Games in 2002. Competitions are held in men’s and women’s categories.
Skiing. After their debut at the 1936 Winter Olympics, they were going to be excluded from the program of the next Games due to the inconsistency of skiers with amateur status. However, at the first post-war Games, alpine skiing was again included in the program. Alpine skiers compete for 10 sets of awards (men and women): Downhill, Slalom, Giant Slalom, Super G and Combination.
Biathlon. At first it was presented only by the individual race among men. Since 1992, biathletes have also taken part in the Winter Olympic Games. For both men and women, competitions are held in 5 types (differing in the length of the distance): individual race, sprint, pursuit, team relay and mass start.
Luge sports. Its program is unchanged: individual competitions (husband and wives), as well as in the mixed category (formally, everyone can participate in them, but so far only men are taking part).
Short track. At the 1988 Winter Olympics he was presented as a showcase, since 1992 – in the official program. Now it includes 8 disciplines: races for various “individual” distances and the relay race (husband and wives).
Freestyle. In 1988 he was on an unofficial program (in three forms). Mogul (1992) and ski acrobatics (1994) were then included in the number of official disciplines. Competitions are held in men’s and women’s categories.
Snowboarding. Initially, the program included giant slalom and halfpipe (husband and wife). In 2002 the giant was replaced by the parallel giant slalom, and in 2006 the cross was added.
– ball hockey (aka bandy or Russian hockey) – in 1952 (Oslo);
– ice-stock – this German version of curling was included in the unofficial program of the Winter Olympic Games twice: in 1936 (Garmisch-Partenkirchen) and 1964 (Innsbruck);
– cross – country skiing on horses – in 1928 (St. Moritz);
– dog sled race – in 1932 (Lake Placid);
– speedskiing – in 1992 (Albertville);
– winter pentathlon (winter version of modern pentathlon) – in 1948 (St. Moritz).